Once a consensus has been reached, the core ideas will be useful in a variety of ways. First, they will provide a foundation and direction for the infusion and mapping approaches described. The consistency and authority of both approaches will be reinforced by having agreed engineering ideas and practices to draw upon. One important use of the core ideas might be to inform the engineering portions of the expected new standards for K-12 science education to be developed. Achieve, Inc. in 2011. Another might be to strengthen the engineering content in the International Technology and Engineering Educators Association's Standards for Technological Literacy, if and when they undergo revision.
Second, the core ideas will be a resource for improving existing or creating new curricula, conducting teacher professional development, designing assessments, and informing education research. Third, although the committee's focus was on questions related to the development and implementation of standards for the K-12 classroom, we recognize that there are also many opportunities for young people and adults to learn about engineering outside the formal school setting. Indeed, student involvement in out-of-school learning environments may equal in-class exposure for some subjects, such as science (Chi et al., 2008). Core ideas will provide guidance for people who work in informal education settings, such as museums, and after-school programs.
Part of the committee's charge was to consider how, or whether, standards for engineering education in K-12 would differ depending on whether the overall purpose is to support the goal of general literacy (the "mainline") or to target a narrower group of students who are interested in pursuing careers in engineering (the "pipeline"). The committee believes that the identification of core ideas in engineering will be beneficial for both purposes. Ultimately, curriculum developers, providers of professional development, and others with an engineering-pipeline orientation may build on the foundation provided by core ideas by emphasizing connections between engineering and mathematics and science, especially physics. Educators with a mainline focus may use core ideas to develop resources for traditional science, mathematics, and technology education classes or informal or after-school programs. Step 2: Pro%ide Guidelines for the I)development of Instructional Materials The value of core ideas will be greatly enhanced for all purposes if they are embedded in "guidelines" for the development of instructional materials (cf., Rutherford, 2009).
The purpose of the guidelines would be to improve the quality of engineering education materials, accelerate their development, and increase the number of individuals and groups that can use them, without developing actual standards. Guidelines would necessarily include the core ideas in engineering, but they would also address other considerations, which we know from research and practice are important to ensuring the quality of instructional materials (Box 4-I ). In other words, guidelines would not include all of the characteristics of effective educational curricula; they would include only the characteristics for which we have some basis in experience and understanding. The guidelines should be revised and improved as our knowledge grows and improves. Learning things is not limited to the scentific area. Instead it also has relations with some other things like speaking a language or using software, including Rosetta Stone English and Rosetta Stone French. If you have a creative mind, you will make all your own differences in the end!
Polypropylene Foams Market size by the end of the estimated timeframe is anticipated to gain substantially, with a moderate CAGR. The demand for polypropylene foams is increasing rapidly worldwide because of its better performance compared to the other foams in the market. It is a thermoplastic polymer which has high molecular weight and is synthetic.
The high price of polypropylene foams and its low awareness in the market are the major restraining factors that can hamper its future market growth. Also, fluctuation in the prices of raw materials and the rising environmental awareness issues might end up hampering the demand for polypropylene in the near future.
This is because the primary feedstocks required for the manufacture of polypropylene foam are crude oil and natural gas. The basic raw materials used in the manufacture of propylene which is a monomer of polypropylene are ethylene and naphtha. Therefore, the prices of natural gas and crude oil have a direct impact on the price of polypropylene. Shift on the road to developing bio-based polypropylene is estimated to open new paths for this market.
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The polypropylene foam has a rising demand in the emerging markets and is expected to drive the market in the next few years as it is sustainable and eco-friendly. It ideal performance, durability and light weight is helping it gain popularity in the market and also an advantage over the other foams. Furthermore, it is also recyclable and reusable.
The polypropylene foams market contains two different segmentations viz. (EPP, XPP). The major driver of the future polypropylene foams market is the Expanded Polypropylene foams (EPP). These EPPs have good chemical resistance and good low temperature performance. These types of foams are available in various types such as - porous PP, high density and low density. The demand for these EPP foams are majorly supported by developments in the consumer products industries, HVAC, packaging and automobile.
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For the polypropylene foams market, in the coming years, packaging is anticipated to be an extremely attractive segment. Moreover, polypropylene foams consumption in the automobile sector is projected to rise due to the increasing demand of vehicles of lighter weight which will not only increase the fuel efficiency, but also reduce the carbon emission and costs to an increased extent. The main industry participants that make investments for persistent technological improvements are further projected to enhance the polypropylene foams market globally.
The prominent players competing in polypropylene foams market are The Woodbridge Group, Hanwha Corporation, Synbra Holding bv, SSW PearlFoam GmbH, Sonoco Products Company, Sekisui Alveo AG, Pregis Corporation, Mitsui Chemicals, Inc., K. K. Nag Ltd., Kaneka Corporation, JSP, Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., DS Smith Plc, Borealis AG and BASF SE to name some.
The main industry participants that make investments for persistent technological improvements are further projected to enhance the polypropylene foams market globally.
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